Camp newspaper "Nitzotz"

In December 1940 the Zionist and anti-Communist underground newspaper “Nitzotz” (Hebrew: The Spark) was founded in Kaunas, Lithuania. Publishers were members of the underground organisation “Irgun Brith Zion” (IBZ, Hebrew: ABC), which had formed as a result of the Soviet annexation of Lithuania.

The Zionist underground newspaper, "Nitzotz" continued publication even while its editor, Selimar Frenkel was imprisoned in Kaufering. The photograph shows the covers of several issues. Source: private

The invasion of the German Wehrmacht strengthened the IBZ’s commitment to fight against National Socialism. This was also reflected in the orientation of “Nitzotz”.

Even after the Jews had been rehoused in the Kaunas ghetto (from 1943 Kauen concentration camp), the magazine continued to be published. By Spring 1944, 28 editions of “Nitzotz” were published, each with a circulation of 15 to 30 copies.

When the SS evacuated the concentration camp, IBZ members hid copies of all 28 editions, which have still not be found to this day. The surviving Jews from the concentration camp were allocated to various camps of the Dachau concentration subcamp complex Landsberg/Kaufering.

Selimar Frenkel (1924 to 2013), an editor of “Nitzotz”, continued to publish even in the concentration subcamp complex after having secretly procured a pen and paper. He published seven editions during his imprisonment. Five of them have survived.


The magazine enabled the surviving activists to exchange opinions and provided space for articles from Jewish intellectuals. The magazine continued to be published for a few years after the liberation of the concentration camps.